- Mar 8, 2018
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74 kilometres from the centre of Madrid (Spain) and over a pronounced meander of the river Lozoya, it has great charm due to its walled area which covers the entire urban area. It is the only town in Madrid that has kept its old walled enclosure intact. It is located in the heart of the Sierra de Guadarrama, which gives it a touch of harmonious nature without equal.
Buitrago de Lozoya has in Cayo Flaminio (1st century BC) the first historical reference. It received the name of Litabrum. Until the Middle Ages, there are very few important findings made about Buitrago except that Celtiberians and Carpetans lived.
In the Middle Ages, Buitrago de Lozoya was influenced by Arabs, Romans, Visigoths, Christians, etc. Although it emphasizes the epoch of Roman dominion.
The denomination of Buitrago finds its origins in the XI century with Alfonso VI. It was conquered in 1083, before conquering Toledo, to guarantee the passage of its troops.
Between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries, Buitrago lived its period of greatest splendor with the Mendoza family in everything related to building construction and urban development.
The Mendoza family came from two humble villages in Alava: Mendoza and Orozco. From them came the house of the Infantado and the lordships of Hita and Buitrago, among others. This family was very important in Castile, where they had many majorazgos. They had numerous members in the court, as well as in America, where they held positions of great importance.
In the eighteenth century Buitrago de Lozoya has its hegemony in terms of commercial and administrative activities. In this century, practically no buildings were built. During the 19th century the walled enclosure gained importance, which served to try to protect the village from invading attacks. The attack by Napoleon, who in 1808 occupied Buitrago and burned the walled enclosure, is noteworthy.
During the twentieth century Buitrago de Lozoya can boast of having received two awards of international importance such as Bien de Interés Cultural a la localidad granted in 1993. The other no less important prize was received by its walls and fortress during the Second Republic in 1931, which were declared National Monuments. Nowadays, every year there is a living nativity scene and a medieval fair, which gives the town a special character and makes it attract many visitors. The living nativity scene takes place during the Christmas season, while the medieval fair is on display in September.